Leadership development series: Using social and emotional intelligence in public safety
There is a strong relationship between emotional intelligence and building trust in the communities we serve
This article is the fourth in a series on leadership development for new law enforcement leaders. Each article will address a specific area of leadership competency offering learning points, strategies and tips. Each article will be featured in our Leaders eNewsletter. Sign up here to receive a copy direct to your inbox.
During the past decade, we’ve heard more about social and emotional intelligence in public safety and how these competencies contribute to enhancing critical thinking while helping us establish positive relationships. Now, public safety professionals are even required to attend training that focuses on developing these skills.
But what is emotional and social intelligence really about and why are they necessary in today’s climate? To answer that question, we need to explore how these competencies directly relate to public safety.
Spiritual master Dr. Amit Ray is often quoted as saying, “Emotional intelligence is the foundation of leadership. It balances flexibility with toughness, vision with passion, compassion with justice.” Psychology Today defines emotional intelligence (EI) as “… the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others.”  Professor Gregory Saville stresses that becoming emotionally mature and confident are necessary prerequisites to influencing other people’s emotions. 
It’s no mystery that today’s public safety professionals need to have well-developed human skills and be able to communicate effectively while managing both inter- and intradepartmental relationships.
Dr. David Black notes how “emotional intelligence isn’t something we’re born with; it’s a tactical skill set we must develop.”  Dr. Michael Pittaro from American Military University takes it a step further and identifies four critical skills for developing social and emotional intelligence in public safety: 
- Self-awareness: Requires knowing our own strengths, weaknesses, emotions and circumstances that impact how we feel in certain situations.
- Self-management: Involves controlling our emotions, especially in situations where we might spontaneously respond in a disruptive manner. It also includes self-monitoring and knowing when it’s appropriate to act.
- Social awareness: Requires empathy for the feelings, needs and concerns of others. This is a big factor in building rapport since it involves understanding a person’s mood or behavior in a way that improves the relationship.
- Relationship management: This expands on social awareness by developing bonds and making people feel supported and understood.
In public safety, social competencies such as conflict management, empathy and leadership are also important. These skill sets are required on nearly every call for service.  There is a strong relationship between emotional intelligence and building trust in the communities we serve. And to make the most of this valuable competency, it’s also necessary to clearly understand complex social relationships – which in turn requires an understanding of social intelligence.
Bnidhu and Snigh’s research identified social intelligence (SI) as “the ability to understand the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of persons, including oneself … and to act appropriately upon that understanding.” 5] Simply put, SI refers to our ability to read other people and understand their intentions and motivations – making strong human connections. When human beings make these connections, they are better equipped to adjust to new situations or adopt alternative courses of action based on a variety of situationally dependent variables.
Savvy public safety professionals use this important competency daily without even thinking. But it’s important to note SI is another learned competency. We develop this skill set through experiences and interactions with people. As Dr. Ronald Riggio points out, we learn “from the successes and failures in social settings.”  Some key elements of SI include:
- Verbal fluency and conversational skills: This largely involves being tactful and appropriate – working or reading the room, as they say.
- Knowing social roles, rules and scripts: Also known as “playing the game,” this social intelligence element involves conforming to the unwritten rules or norms that govern how humans interact with one another in social or group settings.
- Effective listening skills: Being a good listener goes without saying in this industry, but human beings are hardwired to care more about our own thoughts, opinions and feelings. In other words, we are selfish and must work to set aside our own basic needs to connect with others, especially in situations where emotions are at play.
- Impression management: Those working in public safety are keenly aware of the importance of making a good impression. There is obviously a delicate balance between managing the image you portray and how it comes across to others. How you wear the uniform, your level of self-confidence, and skill competencies all play a role in how you professionally interact with both your peers and the public while on the job.
In public safety, we must be able to quickly adjust to new situations and adopt effective courses of action that allow us to connect with the people we serve. How do emotional intelligence and social intelligence competencies relate to critical thinking in public safety?
The relationship to critical thinking
Effective critical thinking requires us to overcome individual biases and false assumptions. How many times have you responded to a call for service and immediately drew conclusions about what occurred or hastily decided upon a necessary course of action, only to significantly change direction after hearing all the facts? We’ve all been there. Our experience and training largely contribute to our success, but they can also inhibit our ability to rationalize when we’re faced with new challenges in unfamiliar territory.
As Phillips and Burrell point out, “critical thinking and effective problem-solving is an optimal process to reach well-thought-out decisions.”  This level of analysis is paramount if we wish to actually solve a problem without settling on some mediocre alternative. And it requires us to have a strong understanding of our own capabilities relative to both social and emotional intelligence. Critical thinking allows us to: 
- Develop paths to reasoned judgment when variables in a situation change or evolve.
- Understand how to build group consensus around complex issues (or at least engage in conversation directed toward problem resolution).
- Learn to encourage and ensure consideration of breakthrough or “outside the box” ideas or thinking.
The key centers on enhancing our ability to solve problems constructively after careful consideration of rational alternatives. This also requires some level of analytical assessment as we determine which course of action is necessary for a given situation.
If we consider critical thinking from a social and emotional intelligence standpoint, we also need to deal with some internal noise. Factor in your own egocentrism and be realistic about the impact of individual emotions on decision-making. We also need to be aware of group influences in our lives. Public safety professionals have a lot in common and it’s not unusual to develop behaviors that are encouraged within that group. This may or may not be beneficial when dealing with certain members of the public. Awareness is the key. As India yoga guru Sadhguru said, “When your mind is full of assumptions, conclusions, and beliefs, it has no penetration, it just repeats past impressions.”
Making your job easier
Critical thinking often requires us to overcome what we think we know about a given situation and approach it with an open mind. This means not only managing our emotions and understanding the emotions of others but also placing those emotions and feelings in the proper context. As with anything, we must be aware of our own biases, our capacity to understand others and limitations to effective communication.
Although it’s tempting to rush through that next call for service in the interest of time, take a moment to slow down, regroup and consider critical social and emotional competencies that I promise will make your job easier. Most of this is grounded in common sense, but it’s easy to get caught up in the minutia of a busy day while failing to consider the human dynamic that can make or break a situation.
1. Emotional Intelligence. Psychology Today.
2. Saville G. (2015.) Emotional Intelligence in Policing. The Police Chief.
3. Black D. (2022.) The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Public Safety. Cordico.
4. Pittaro M. (2017.) How emotional intelligence benefits correctional officers. Corrections1.
5. Bnidhu J, Snigh P. (2022.) The Structure and Cultivation of Social Intelligence. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(3):58.
6. Riggioi R. (2014.) What is Social Intelligence? Why Does it Matter? Psychology Today.
7. Phillips W, Burrell D. (2008,) Decision-making skills that encompass a critical thinking orientation for law enforcement professionals. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 11(2).
POLICE1’S LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT SERIES
- Part 1: Self-awareness
- Part 2: 5 tips to improve your time management
- Part 3: Strategies to keep your ego in check
- Part 4: Using social and emotional intelligence in public safety
- Part 5: What kind of leader are you?
- Part 6: Why adaptive leadership is imperative for law enforcement
- Part 7: Understanding why police leaders succeed